Pier Leone Ghezzi (1674-1755) and followers

Ghezzi was a Italian Rococo painter and draughtsman born and died in Rome. He is known as an able caricaturist. His pen and gouache caricatures depicting known individuals in satirical fashion were much admired and popular. He made this genre popular in Italy and abroad and also tried to made a living from it by sketching singers, artists... Continue Reading →


Cornelis Dusart (1660-1704)

More than Romeyn de Hooghe the name of Cornelis Dusart is to the general public only known as a street name. Yet he has in the history of caricature a great name by his highly expressive (nearly ad nauseam) exaggerated portraits. Born in Haarlem in 1660 he died there in 1704 . He was a... Continue Reading →

anonymous-Mazarinades (1648-1653)

Louis XIV was five years old when his father died of tuberculosis, so he was raised by a regency council consisting of his mother Anne of Austria and Cardinal Mazarin. FRONDE (1648-1653)  At the time of the Fronde Louis was ten years old and this rebellion made a deep impression on him, because it was... Continue Reading →

Romeyn de Hooghe (1645-1708)

Born in Amsterdam in 1645 he worked mostly in Haarlem. He was a nephew of the painter Pieter de Hoogh(e). The great heyday of painting was already over. Rembrandt died in 1669. In 1666 Hals, in 1649 van Ostade, Vermeer in 1675, in 1679 Jan Steen and Frans van Mieris in 1681. Romeyn de Hooghe... Continue Reading →

Charles le Brun (1619 – 1690)

ROYAL ACADEMY Following the Academies in Italy the French Royal Academy was founded in 1648 at the instigation of the painter Charles le Brun, with the consent of the young king and protected by Mazarin. This Academy proposed also an emancipation of the artist, who until now was considered still too much as a craftsman... Continue Reading →

Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669)

REMBRANDT: "SATIRE ON THE CRITIC OF ART" -1644 In the northern Netherlands the education of art was not organized by a State academy as in Italy and France. However, there were painters associations (guilds) and private academies. Rembrandt entertained a private academy in his house in Amsterdam with many students, actually more than according to... Continue Reading →

Abraham Bosse (1602-1676)

He was a pupil of Jacques Callot, and art intermingled with testimony in his work, perhaps influenced by the Protestant tradition to which he belonged. Besides religious scenes, he also pictured the reality of civil life of his time through his engravings of fashion, institutions, trades and professions. His portrait of Louis XIII "As Hercules"... Continue Reading →

anonymous-The War of three Henry’s (1588-1594)

RELIGIOUS WARS IN FRANCE The religious wars in France were mixed with the political struggle between king and nobility and more an aristocratic movement than a popular movement as in Germany. The Protestant Reform in France was started by John Calvin (Jehan Cauvin 1509-1564); his adherents were called Huguenots. During this struggle pictorial satire became... Continue Reading →

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