Franz Xaver Messerschmidt (1736-1783)


William Hogarth (1697-1764)

During the reign of King William III the English caricature and satire was strongly influenced by Dutch artists such as Romeyn de Hooghe.  Engraving and social satire in England owns its rise to William Hogarth. It was only at the end of his career that Hogarth pioneered in an rather clumsy way in the field... Continue Reading →

Charles le Brun (1619 – 1690)

ROYAL ACADEMY Following the Academies in Italy the French Royal Academy was founded in 1648 at the instigation of the painter Charles le Brun, with the consent of the young king and protected by Mazarin. This Academy proposed also an emancipation of the artist, who until now was considered still too much as a craftsman... Continue Reading →

Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669)

REMBRANDT: "SATIRE ON THE CRITIC OF ART" -1644 In the northern Netherlands the education of art was not organized by a State academy as in Italy and France. However, there were painters associations (guilds) and private academies. Rembrandt entertained a private academy in his house in Amsterdam with many students, actually more than according to... Continue Reading →

Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598 – 1680)

GIAN LORENZO BERNINI The sculptor Bernini, born in Naples, was the second major artist who painted portrait caricatures, but in his case of well-known personalities. Such as these caricature of a Cardinal. He was also the designer of the colonnade of the St.Peter. His images and sculptures belong to the so called Baroque. With a focus... Continue Reading →

Annibale Carracci (1560-1609)

  Augustine and Annibale Carracci founded in Bologna the  "Academy of Incamminati". The emphasis lay on drawing after life with the intention to revive the pure style of Rafaël  and Michelangelo. But Annibale was also the first to draw exaggerated portraits in striking lines without any political or satirical intent. As a model he used... Continue Reading →

Federigo Zuccaro (1542-1609)

THE ACADEMY OF SAN LUCA In 1593 Federigo Zuccaro built a house in Rome, decorated it with frescoes, and opened it as a private academy. The name "di San Luca" was a convenient choice because the painters belonged traditionally to the Guild of St. Luke, where they were subordinate to the "paint mixers" with only... Continue Reading →

Giuseppe Arcimboldo (1526-1593)

Arcimboldo was born in Milan and he worked at the court of Rudolf II in Prague, son of the Emperor Maximilian II. His fantastic portraits look at a distance like normal portraits. The objects (flowers, plants, books)he used are related to the characterization of the personages.                  ... Continue Reading →

Titian (1487-1576)

Titian - Tiziano Vecellio- was born in Veneto in the Dolomits and became the primus of the Venetian school of painting (with among others Veronese, El Greco, Tiepolo, Tintoretto). He made famous allegorical paintings and portraits for instance one of Emperor Charles V. In 1506 the Laokon - a sculpture made on the island Rhodes in circa... Continue Reading →

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