anonymous-Mazarinades (1648-1653)

Louis XIV was five years old when his father died of tuberculosis, so he was raised by a regency council consisting of his mother Anne of Austria and Cardinal Mazarin. FRONDE (1648-1653)  At the time of the Fronde Louis was ten years old and this rebellion made a deep impression on him, because it was... Continue Reading →

anonymous-The War of three Henry’s (1588-1594)

RELIGIOUS WARS IN FRANCE The religious wars in France were mixed with the political struggle between king and nobility and more an aristocratic movement than a popular movement as in Germany. The Protestant Reform in France was started by John Calvin (Jehan Cauvin 1509-1564); his adherents were called Huguenots. During this struggle pictorial satire became... Continue Reading →

anonymous-Cardinal Richelieu (1582-1642)

Louis XIII was nine years old when his father, Henry IV was assassinated in 1610. His mother asked Cardinal Richelieu as co-regent. During his reign as prime minister there appeared almost no pamphlets and satires. This was achieved by the criminalization of insulting the head of state and an active control by the system of... Continue Reading →

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