Honoré Daumier (1808-1879)

Youth Years Daumier was born in Marseilles and the 13 year old boy began working as an assistant bailiff in Paris, where his family had moved in 1821. His father was a framer who also tried to make name by writing classical tragedies, an activity because of which his wife, son and two daughters nearly... Continue Reading →


James Gillray (1756- 1815)

MORAVIAN ACADEMY Gillray was five years old when he was sent to the Moravian Academy in Bedford. Both boys and girls girls were taught in an exceptionally broad band of issues (where the influence of Comenius was palpable). Here the foundations were laid for Gillray's cultural formation. He was later a well informed and literate man... Continue Reading →

Jacques Louis David (1748-1825)

David began as a pupil of Boucher, and stayed from 1775 to 1780 in Rome. He began to specialize in heroic scenes based on the ancient art. In 1783 he received a state order of Louis XVI for the "Oath of  the Horatii". He again went to Rome for inspiration. The result was a classic depiction... Continue Reading →

George Townshend (1724-1807)

After the sophisticated and professional social satire of William Hogarth (1697-1764) starts in England the period of journalistic satire with an emphasis on current topics from daily politics. One of the pioneers in this branch was the Brigadier General George Townshend. He had little military experience, though he belonged to a famous  family that could... Continue Reading →

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)

THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION  The American Revolution began with the Boston Tea Party in 1774. Civilians dressed as Indians threw in the port of Boston cargo's of tea overboard because they refused  to pay British tax on tea. The British government saw this as a rebellion against the authority of the motherland. As founding father of... Continue Reading →

William Hogarth (1697-1764)

During the reign of King William III the English caricature and satire was strongly influenced by Dutch artists such as Romeyn de Hooghe.  Engraving and social satire in England owns its rise to William Hogarth. It was only at the end of his career that Hogarth pioneered in an rather clumsy way in the field... Continue Reading →

Cornelis Dusart (1660-1704)

More than Romeyn de Hooghe the name of Cornelis Dusart is to the general public only known as a street name. Yet he has in the history of caricature a great name by his highly expressive (nearly ad nauseam) exaggerated portraits. Born in Haarlem in 1660 he died there in 1704 . He was a... Continue Reading →

anonymous-Mazarinades (1648-1653)

Louis XIV was five years old when his father died of tuberculosis, so he was raised by a regency council consisting of his mother Anne of Austria and Cardinal Mazarin. FRONDE (1648-1653)  At the time of the Fronde Louis was ten years old and this rebellion made a deep impression on him, because it was... Continue Reading →

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